Headquarters of the United Nations

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The complex has served as the official headquarters of the United Nations since its completion in It is located in the Turtle Bay neighborhood of Manhattanon 17 to 18 acres 6. The United Nations has three additional, subsidiary, regional headquarters, or headquarters districts.

All fifteen of the United Nations' specialized agencies are located outside New York City at these other headquarters or in other cities: Although it is situated in New York City, the land occupied by the United Nations Headquarters and the spaces of buildings that it rents are under the sole administration of the United Nations and not the U.

They are technically extraterritorial through a treaty agreement with the U. However, in exchange for local police, fire protection and other services, the United Nations agrees to acknowledge most local, state, and federal laws.

The headquarters of the United Nations occupies a site beside the East River, on between 17 and 18 acres 6. A yacht club on the site was proposed inbut it proved to be too expensive.

InZeckendorf purchased the land with the intention to create an "X City" on the site. The X City would have also had smaller apartment and office towers. The purchase was funded by Nelson's father, John D. While the United Nations had dreamed of constructing an independent city for its new world capital, multiple obstacles soon forced the organization to downsize their plans.

They ultimately decided to build on Rockefeller's East River plot, since the land was free and the land's owners were well known. During daily meetings from February to Junethe collaborative team produced at least 45 designs and variations. Rather than hold a competition for the design of the facilities for the headquarters, the UN decided to commission a multinational team of leading architects to collaborate on the design.

Harrison was named as Director of Planning, and a Board of Design Consultants was composed of architects, planners and engineers nominated by member governments. The board consisted of N. Niemeyer met with Corbusier at the latter's request shortly after the former arrived in New York City.

Corbusier had already been lobbying hard to promote his own scheme 23, and thus, requested that Niemeyer not submit a design, lest he further confuse average return dunlap our options opening accounts with order brokers order you to trade simultaneou contentious meetings of the Board of Design. Instead, he asked the younger architect to assist him with his project.

Niemeyer began to absent himself from the meetings. Only after Wallace Harrison and Max Abramovitz repeatedly pressed him to participate did Niemeyer agree to submit his own project. This would not split the site, but on the contrary, would create a large civic square. After much discussion, Harrison, who coordinated the meetings, determined that a design based on Niemeyer's project 32 and Le Corbusier's project 23 would be developed for the final project.

Le Corbusier's project 23 consisted of a large block containing both the Assembly Hall and the Council Chambers near the center of the site with the Secretariat tower emerging as a slab from the south. Niemeyer's plan was closer to that actually constructed, with a distinctive General Assembly building, a long low horizontal block housing the other meeting rooms, average return dunlap our options opening accounts with order brokers order you to trade simultaneou a tall tower for the Secretariat.

The complex as built, however, repositioned Niemeyer's General Assembly building to the north of this tripartite composition. This plan included a public plaza as well. The UN headquarters was originally proposed alongside a grand boulevard leading eastward from Third Avenue or Lexington Avenuebetween 46th Street to the south and 49th Street to the north. Wallace Harrison's assistant, architect George Dudley, later stated: However, he finally decided to accept the modification: I do not regret my decision.

This late project was built with some reductions and other modifications. The selection of the East River site came after over a year of protracted study and consideration of many sites in the United States. A powerful faction among the delegates advocated returning to the former League of Nations complex in Geneva, Switzerland.

Amateur architects submitted designs, local governments offered park areas, but the determined group of New York City boosters that included such luminaries as Grover WhalenThomas J. Watsonand Nelson Rockefellercoordinated efforts with the powerful Coordinator of Construction, Robert Mosesand Mayor William O'Dwyerto assemble acceptable interim facilities.

Their determined courtship of the UN Interim Site committee resulted in the early meetings taking place at multiple locations throughout the New York area. The Manhattan site was selected after John D. The third and sixth General Assembly sessions, in andmet in the Palais de Chaillot in Paris.

Prior to the construction of the current complex, the UN was headquartered at a temporary location at the Sperry Corporation 's offices in Lake Success, New Yorkan eastern suburb of the city in Nassau County on Long Islandfrom to Per an agreement with the city, the buildings met some but not all local fire safety and building codes. House of Representatives authorized the loan on August 6,on the condition that the UN repay the loan in twelve monthly installments between July and July Gubitchev and a KGB spy Judith Coplonwho had been charged with espionage and were set to go on trial in March The groundbreaking ceremony for the initial buildings occurred on September 14, A bucket of earth was removed to mark the start of construction for the basement of the story Secretariat Building.

It was believed that if enough countries designed their own rooms, the UN would be able to reduce its own expenditures. However, in November, New York City's construction coordinator Robert Moses reported that construction was two months behind schedule.

A prayer space for people of all religions was announced on April 18, Until then, the UN had avoided the subject of a prayer room, because it had been difficult, if not impossible, to create a prayer room that could accommodate the various religions.

The flag of the United Nations was raised above the first beam as a demonstration for the many spectators who witnessed the first beam's erection. The cornerstone of the headquarters was originally supposed to be laid on April 10, However, in March of that year, Secretary-General Trygve Lie delayed the ceremony after learning that Truman would not present to officiate the cornerstone laying.

Dewey laid the headquarters' cornerstone. In JuneUN officials wrote a letter to the American Bridge Company in which they expressed intent to buy 10, to 11, tons of steel. This steel would be used to build the rest of the complex, as well as a deck over FDR Drive on the headquarters' eastern side.

To fit in with the accelerated schedule of construction, the steel would have to be delivered by September. The tunnel started construction on August 1, The tunnel involved two years of planning due to its complexity.

The expanded streets were expected to speed up construction. The Secretariat Building was ceremonially topped out in October after its steel framework had been completed. The UN flag was hoisted atop average return dunlap our options opening accounts with order brokers order you to trade simultaneou roof of the newly completed steel frame in celebration of this event.

The installation of the Secretariat Building's interior furnishings proceeded quickly so that the building could be open in January This marked a reversal from their previous policy of rejecting all donations. In DecemberRobert Moses proposed placing a playground inside the UN headquarters, [50] but this plan was initially rejected.

A new library building for the UN headquarters was proposed in The site of the UN headquarters has extraterritoriality status. In addition, the United Nations Headquarters remains under the jurisdiction and laws of the United States, although a few members of the UN staff have diplomatic immunity and so cannot be prosecuted by local courts unless the diplomatic immunity is waived by the Secretary-General.

The currency in use at the United Nations headquarters' businesses is the U. The UN's stamps are issued in denominations of the U. Delegates speaking in any of these languages will have their words simultaneously interpreted into all of the others, and attendees are provided with headphones through which they can hear the interpretations. For security reasons, all mail sent to this average return dunlap our options opening accounts with order brokers order you to trade simultaneou is sterilized, so items that may be degraded can be sent by courier.

Journalists, when reporting from the complex, often use "United Nations" rather than "New York City" as the identification of their location in recognition of the extraterritoriality status.

For award purposes, amateur radio operators consider the UN headquarters a separate "entity" under some award programs such as DXCC. Other UN organizations such as the World Bank count for the state or country they are located in. The complex includes a number of major buildings. Just inside the perimeter fence of the complex stands a line of flagpoles where the flags of all UN member states, plus the UN flagare flown in English alphabetical order.

At the front of the chamber is the rostrum containing the green marble [75] desk for the President of the General Assembly, Secretary-General and Under-Secretary-General for General Assembly Affairs and Conference Services and matching lectern for speakers.

In front of the paneled walls are seating areas for guests and within average return dunlap our options opening accounts with order brokers order you to trade simultaneou wall are windows which allow interpreters to watch the proceedings as they work. The entrance to the hall bears an inscription from the Gulistan by Iranian poet Saadi. Each of the delegations has six seats in the hall with three at a desk and three alternate seats behind them.

It was designed by Sven Markelius and was renovated in The oil canvas mural depicting a phoenix rising from its ashes by Norwegian artist Per Krogh hangs at the front of the room. The story Secretariat Building was completed in The library was founded with the United Nations in The library holdsbooks, 9, newspapers and periodical titles, 80, maps and the Woodrow Wilson Collection containing 8, volumes of League of Nations documents and 6, related books and pamphlets.

The complex is also notable for its gardens and outdoor average return dunlap our options opening accounts with order brokers order you to trade simultaneou. Iconic sculptures include the "Knotted Gun", called Non-Violencea statue of a Colt Python revolver with its barrel tied in a knot, which was a gift from the Luxembourg government [85] and " Let Us Beat Swords into Plowshares ", a gift from the Soviet Union.

Contrary to popular belief, the quotation is not carved on any UN building. A piece of the Berlin Wall also stands average return dunlap our options opening accounts with order brokers order you to trade simultaneou the UN garden. The works are meant to merely be decorative with no symbolism. One is said to resemble cartoon character Bugs Bunny and U. Truman dubbed the other work Scrambled Eggs. However, he was denied a visa due to his communist convictions and decided to paint them in Rio de Janeiro.

They were later assembled in the headquarters. After their completion inPortinari, who was already ill when he started the masterpiece, succumbed to lead poisoning from the pigments his doctors advised him to abandon.

While outside of the complex, the headquarters also includes two large office buildings that serve as offices for the agencies and programmes of the organization. DC1 was built in

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Clandestine human intelligence is intelligence collected from human sources using clandestine espionage methods. These sources consist of people working in a variety of roles within the intelligence community. Examples include the quintessential spy known by professionals as an asset or agent , who collects intelligence, couriers and related personnel, who handle an intelligence organization's ideally secure communications , and support personnel, such as access agents, who may arrange the contact between the potential spy and the case officer who recruits them.

The recruiter and supervising agent may not necessarily be the same individual. Large espionage networks may be composed of multiple levels of spies, support personnel, and supervisors. Espionage networks are typically organized as a cell system , in which each clandestine operator knows only the people in his own cell, perhaps the external case officer, and an emergency method which may not necessarily involve another person to contact higher levels if the case officer or cell leader is captured, but has no knowledge of people in other cells.

This cellular organization is a form of compartmentalisation , which is an important tactic for controlling access to information, used in order to diminish the risk of discovery of the network or the release of sensitive information.

Espionage is the act of obtaining typically via covert methods information which an adversary would not want the entity conducting the espionage to have. Espionage is inherently clandestine , and the legitimate holder of the information may change plans or take other countermeasures once it is known that the information is in unauthorized hands.

HUMINT is in a constant battle with counterintelligence , and the relationship can become very blurry, as one side tries to "turn" agents of the other into reporting to the other side. Recruiters can run false flag operations, where a citizen of country A believes they are providing intelligence to country B, when they are actually providing it to country C.

Unlike other forms of intelligence collection disciplines , espionage usually involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored, or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge. There are exceptions to physical meetings, such as the Oslo Report , or the insistence of Robert Hanssen in never meeting the people to whom he was selling information. This article does not cover military units that penetrate deep between enemy lines, but generally in uniform, to conduct special reconnaissance.

Such military units can be on the border of the line, in international law, which defines them as spies, if they conduct information in civilian clothes.

In some circumstances, the uniformed personnel may act in support to the actual agents, providing communications, transportation, financial, and other support. Yet another discipline is covert operations , where personnel, uniformed or not, may conduct raids , sabotage , assassinations , propaganda i. Black's Law Dictionary defines espionage as: In the UK, "Under the Act, a person commits the offence of 'spying' if he, for any purpose prejudicial to the safety or interests of the State;.

The US defines espionage towards itself as "The act of obtaining, delivering, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation. See List of intelligence agencies for a more complete list. Espionage is usually part of an institutional effort i. Many nations routinely spy on both their enemies and allies, although they maintain a policy of not making comment on this.

In addition to utilizing agencies within a government many also employ private companies to collect information on their behalf such as SCG International Risk and others. Not all clandestine human sources change their loyalties to the country to which they were born, or owed their first allegiance.

In this section we are talking of the classical and actually rare "spy", who really is a loyal citizen of country A but obtains information from country B, either through informal means e. A special case is of the Country B loyalist who controls agents or provides other supporting or managerial functions against Country A. Richard Sorge was a Soviet citizen i.

Sorge was eventually caught and executed by the Japanese, who generally honored his bravery. Especially in wartime, while a country may need to execute an agent, they sometimes respect them. It is a truism that a live captured spy has more potential value than a dead one, since a live one can still be interrogated, or perhaps turned into a double agent. There have been cases where countries have announced the execution of people who are actually alive.

Dangled moles start out being loyal to one country B, but go to work for another service A, reporting back to their original service.

Such operations can become "infinities of mirrors" [3] as the mole may be detected and the service by which they are employed tries to double them, which may or may not work. One of the best-known, and apparently most successful, was the early Soviet recruitment of Kim Philby i.

Philby is discussed further below. As far as is known from public sources, the only mole, already loyal to a foreign service, who went to work for the CIA i. While, as far as is known in public sources, still loyal to his original agency, Koecher was ordered to report to Moscow by Oleg Kalugin , longtime legal resident of the USSR in the US.

Kalugin accused Koecher of being a US double agent. The arrest was legally tainted, and Koecher was eventually exchanged for Soviet prisoners, both sides apparently not wanting the affair to be in a public court.

With the exception of penetration moles, other human sources start out as highly trusted by their services. What causes an individual to betray service A, typically his country of birth?

The most common shorthand for changing allegiance is MICE , an acronym for:. While he received large amounts of money, he apparently felt unappreciated in his own service and spying on it satisfied his ego. Psychological factors can apply to people changing allegiance for reasons other than coercion or ideology. To go beyond slogans, Project Slammer was an effort of the Intelligence Community Staff, under the Director of Central Intelligence, to come up with characteristics of Project Slammer, an Intelligence Community sponsored study of espionage.

It "examines espionage by interviewing and psychologically assessing actual espionage subjects. Additionally, persons knowledgeable of subjects are contacted to better understand the subjects' private lives and how they are perceived by others while conducting espionage. His performance in his government job if presently employed is separate from espionage; espionage does not really discount his contribution in the workplace.

Once he considers espionage, he figures out how he might do it. These are mutually reinforcing, often simultaneous events. He finds that it is easy to go around security safeguards he is able to solve that problem. He belittles the security system, feeling that if the information was really important espionage would be hard to do the information would really be better protected.

This "Ease of accomplishment" further reinforces his resolve. After a relationship with espionage activity and HOIS develops, the process becomes much more bearable, espionage continues even flourishes. In the course of long term activity subjects may reconsider their involvement. This occurs when access to classified information is lost or there is a perceived need to prove themselves, or both.

Glamour if present earlier subsides. They are reluctant to continue. They may even break contact. Those wanting to reverse their role aren't confessing, they're negotiating. Those who are "Stressed out" want to confess. Both attempt to minimize or avoid punishment. According to a press report about Project Slammer and Congressional oversight of counterespionage, one fairly basic function is observing one's own personnel for behavior that either suggests that they could be targets for foreign HUMINT, or may already have been subverted.

News reports indicate that in hindsight, red flags were flying but not noticed. Some people with changed spending may have a perfectly good reason, such as an inheritance or even winning the lottery, but such patterns should not be ignored. They emphasize the "essential and multi-faceted motivational patterns underlying espionage. Future Slammer analyses will focus on newly developing issues in espionage such as the role of money, the new dimensions of loyalty and what seems to be a developing trend toward economic espionage.

According to a Defense Department study, financial incentives and external coercion have played diminishing roles in motivating Americans to spy against the United States, but divided loyalties are increasingly evident in recent espionage cases.

The study said, "Two thirds of American spies since have volunteered. Since , spying has not paid well: Offenders since are more likely to be naturalized citizens, and to have foreign attachments, connections, and ties, and therefore they are more likely to be motivated to spy from divided loyalties.

Ames seems to have been motivated primarily by money. Among the most important moles, a senior officer already in place when he started reporting, for ideological reasons, to service B actually two B's, SIS and CIA , was Col.

Recruitment can be done through personal relationships, from casual sex and blackmail to friendship or romance. Personnel in sensitive positions, who have difficulty getting along with peers, may become risks for being compromised with an approach based on ego. William Kampiles, a low-level worker in the CIA Watch Center, sold, for a small sum, the critical operations manual on the KH reconnaissance satellite. To an interviewer, Kampiles suggested that if someone had noted his "problem"—constant conflicts with supervisors and co-workers—and brought in outside counseling, he might not have stolen the KH manual.

Other than the dangled moles described above, moles start out as loyal to their own country A. They may or may not be a trained intelligence officer. Note that some intelligence professionals reserve the term mole to refer to enemy personnel that personally know important things about enemy intelligence operations, technology, or military plans.

A person such as a clerk or courier e. To be clear, all moles are assets, but not all assets are moles. Another special case is a "deep cover" or "sleeper" mole, who may enter a service, possibly at a young age, but definitely not reporting or doing anything that would attract suspicion, until reaching a senior position. Kim Philby is an example of an agent actively recruited by the British Secret Intelligence Service while he was already committed to Communism.

Philby, at first, concentrated on doing a good job for the British, so he could rise in trust and authority. An individual may want to leave their service at once, perhaps from high-level disgust, or low-level risk of having been discovered in financial irregularities and is just ahead of arrest.

Even so, the defector certainly brings knowledge with him, and may be able to bring documents or other materials of value. Philip Agee is an example of a US CIA officer who came to the belief that he was working on behalf of an ideology he had come to hate. Eventually, he resigned, and clandestinely went to Cuba , telling their intelligence service everything he knew, with the stated goal [11] of damaging the CIA.

Agee claims the CIA was satisfied with his work and did not want him to leave, although the author, John Barrow, claims that he was close to being discharged for improper personal conduct. Soviet, and now Russian, doctrine has some interesting insights that might well be useful to the West. For example, rather than use the term "defector", which has a negative connotation, they use the Russian word dobrozhelatel , "well-wisher," as used here virtually the equivalent of "walk-in.

While the term "well-wisher" may be positive, in Serov's view, he does not assume a well-wisher has value to offer. The majority actually turn out to be offering material of no significant value. The first task is to determine if they are random sympathizers who fail to understand the subject they propose to discuss, or are active provocations being run by foreign counterintelligence.

Provocateurs obtain some value if they can simply identify the intelligence officers in an embassy, so the initial interviews are, unless there is a strong reason to the contrary, conducted by low-level staff.

Serov points out that even if some walk-ins have no material of value, "Some are ideologically close to us and genuinely and unselfishly anxious to help us; some are in sympathy with the Soviet Union but want at the same time to supplement their income; and some, though not in accord with our ideas and views, are still ready to collaborate honestly with us for financial reasons. Other walk-ins simply are trying to get money, either for nonsense information or for real information with which they have been entrusted.