Analogue and Digital Data | IGCSE ICT

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A digital signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values; at any given time it can only take on one of binar broker demokonto finite number of values. Simple digital signals represent information in discrete bands of analog levels.

All levels within a band of values represent the same information state. In most digital circuitsthe signal can have two possible values; this is called a binary signal or logic signal. These correspond to the two values "zero" and "one" or "false" and "true" of the Boolean domainso at any given time a binary signal represents one binary digit bit. Because of this discretizationrelatively small changes to the analog signal levels do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry.

As a result, digital signals have noise immunity ; electronic noiseprovided it is not too great, will not affect digital circuits, whereas noise always degrades the operation of analog signals to some degree.

Digital signals having more than two states are occasionally used; circuitry using such signals is called multivalued logic. For example, signals that can assume three possible states are called three-valued logic. In a digital signal, the physical quantity representing the information may be a variable electric current or voltage, the intensity, phase or polarization of an optical or other electromagnetic fieldacoustic pressure, the magnetization of a magnetic storage media, etcetera.

Digital signals are used in all digital electronicsnotably computing equipment and data transmission. In digital electronics a digital signal is a pulse train a pulse amplitude modulated signali.

In digital signal processinga digital signal is a representation of a physical signal that is a sampled and quantized. A digital signal is an abstraction which is discrete in time and amplitude. The signal's value only exists at regular time intervals, since only the values of the corresponding physical signal at those sampled moments are significant for further digital processing.

The digital signal is a sequence of codes drawn from a finite set of values. In digital communicationsa digital signal is a continuous-time physical signal, alternating between a discrete number of waveforms, [3] representing a bit stream message.

The shape of the waveform depends the transmission scheme, which may be either:. In communications, sources of interference are usually present, and noise is frequently a significant problem.

The effects of interference are typically minimized by filtering off interfering signals as much as possible and by using data redundancy. The main advantages of digital signals for communications are often considered to be the immunity to noise that it may be possible to provide, and the ability, in many cases such as with audio and video data, to use data compression to greatly decrease the bandwidth that is required on the communication media.

In computer architecture and other digital systems, a waveform that switches between two voltage levels or less commonly, other waveforms representing the two states of a Boolean value 0 and 1, or Low and High, or false and true is referred to as a digital signal or logic signal or binary signal when it is interpreted in terms of only two possible digits.

The clock signal is a special digital signal that is used to synchronize many digital circuits. The image shown can be considered the waveform of a clock signal. Logic changes are triggered either by the rising edge or the falling edge. The given diagram is an example of the practical pulse and therefore we have introduced two new terms that are:. Although in a highly simplified and idealized model of a digital circuit we may wish for these transitions to occur instantaneously, no real world circuit is purely resistive and therefore no circuit can instantly change voltage levels.

This means that during a short, finite transition time the output may not properly reflect the input, and will not correspond to either a logically high or low voltage. The two states of a wire are usually represented by some measurement of an electrical property: Voltage is the most common, but current is used in some logic families.

A threshold is designed for each logic family. When below that threshold, the signal is lowwhen above high. To create a digital signal, an analog signal must be modulated with a control signal to produce it. As we have already seen, the simplest modulation, a type of unipolar line coding is simply to switch on and off a DC signal, so that high voltages are a '1' and low voltages are '0'. In digital radio schemes one or more carrier waves are amplitude or frequency or phase modulated with a signal to produce a digital signal suitable for transmission.

In Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line over telephone wiresADSL does not primarily use binary logic; the digital signals for individual carriers are modulated with different valued logics, depending on the Shannon capacity of the individual channel.

Often digital signals are "sampled" by a clock signal at regular intervals by passing the signal through an "edge sensitive" flip-flop. When this is done the input is measured at those points in time, and the signal from that time is passed through to the output and the output is then held steady till the next clock. This process is the basis of synchronous logicand the system is also used in digital signal processing. However, asynchronous logic also exists, which uses no single clock, and generally operates more quickly, and may use less power, but is significantly harder to design.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about digital signals in electronics. For digital data and systems, see Digital data. For digital signals that specifically represent analog waveforms, see Digital signal signal processing. For other uses, see Digital signal disambiguation. For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Signal electrical engineering.

Digital signal signal processing. A logic signal waveform: The Art Of Electronics, 2nd Ed. A digital signal is a special form of discrete-time signal which is discrete in both time and amplitude, obtained by permitting each value sample of a discrete-time signal to acquire a finite set of values quantizationassigning it a numerical symbol according to a code A digital signal is a sequence or list of numbers drawn from a finite set.

Chitode, Communication Systems Digital signal electronics Boolean algebra Logic synthesis Logic in computer science Computer architecture Digital signal signal processing Digital signal processing Circuit minimization Switching circuit theory.

Logic synthesis Register-transfer level Formal equivalence checking Synchronous logic Asynchronous logic Finite-state machine. Computer hardware Digital audio radio Digital photography Digital telephone Digital video cinema television Electronic literature. Line coding digital baseband transmission. Unipolar encoding Bipolar encoding On-off keying. Carrier-suppressed return-to-zero Alternate-phase return-to-zero.

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This site took quite a bit of time and effort to create, and it costs me money to keep it up and running. If the site has helped you, please consider showing your appreciation by donating a little towards the site's running costs. Analogue Signals and Digital Data. An analogue signal is one which has a value that varies smoothly. It is easiest to understand this by looking at an example: The sound waves that your mouth produces when you speak are analogue - the waves vary in a smooth way. These waves can be converted into an electrical signal by a microphone.

This electrical signal is also analogue:. Computers and most other modern electronic devices such as cameras, mobile phones, etc. Computer software is a collection of numeric codes which tell the computer what to do Text that you type into a computer is stored as numeric codes Images inside a computer are stored as numeric values different values for different coloured pixels. Everything stored and processed inside a computer is a number digital.

Computers are unable to process analogues signals because they are digital devices. For digital devices such as computers, to work with analogue devices, conversion is required All numbers stored inside a computer are stored using a system called binary. Binary only uses 0s and 1s for all numbers. When text is stored in a computer, each letter is actually stored as a number because that is all computers can store The numeric codes used for letters are defined by a system called the American Standard Code for Information Interchange ASCII.

If you want to attach an analogue input device to a digital device such as a computer, you will need an analogue to digital convertor ADC. A good example of a computer peripheral that requires an ADC is a microphone.

When you plug a microphone into a computer, you are actually plugging it into an ADC which converts the analogue signals from the microphone into digital data that the computer can then process.

If you want to attach an analogue output device to a digital device such as a computer, you will need a digital to analogue convertor DAC. A good example of a computer peripheral that requires a DAC is a loudspeaker or headphones. When you plug a loudspeaker into a computer, you are actually plugging it into a DAC, which takes digital data from the computer and converts it into analogue signals which the loudspeaker then converts into sound.

The music data stored in the player is all digital, but the player produces analogue signals which the headphones convert into sound. Sorry to ask you this, but Menu Home Read Me First! Data and Information What is a System? What is a Computer? Bits and Bytes 1. User Interfaces Types of Computer 2. Computer Networks What is a Network? Why Not Use Networks?