Providing the best from binary options signals software49 comments
Trading symbols for online brokers india stock exchange
Stock options give the option holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell particular stocks for a particular price, called the strike price, within a specified time. Options also called contingent claims are derivatives, so called because their value derives from other securities called the underlying security , or just underlying or underlier , which in the case of stock options are particular stocks.
They are used extensively for hedging because options allow an investor to protect a position for a small cost, and speculators like them because their profit potential is much greater than the underlying securities. Besides common stock, there are also options for stock indexes, foreign exchange, agricultural commodities, precious metals, and interest rate futures.
Although options were originally traded in the over-the-counter OTC market, where the contract terms were negotiated, option trading really took off when the first option exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange CBOE , was organized in to trade standardized contracts, increasing the market and liquidity of options.
Options trading began on April 26, , with 1. Since then, trading volumes have increased substantially, with billions of contracts traded in Leverage is the fundamental advantage of options. A small investment can benefit from the price movements of securities that would either cost much more to own outright, or would require a much greater risk.
It is because of leverage that options are excellent financial instruments for hedging a long or short position, or for pure speculation.
Of course, options have a downside; otherwise, why would anyone bother buying the underlying security. Although the risk is limited to the premium for the option holder, the disadvantage of buying options is that they can expire completely worthless, and often will.
If the stock price does not move sufficiently in the right direction before the expiration date, then the investor loses the entire investment. I review my articles periodically to make sure that they are up-to-date. Some of the examples are dated, but if the examples continue to illustrate the basic principles, which they usually do, then I continue to use those examples, since it takes a lot of work to redo, while redoing them using more recent dates offers no pedagogical advantage.
It would be virtually impossible to even approach getting the same return on investment buying the stock itself! So even if the option was closed out at the market top, profits would have been minimal after subtracting the call premium and transaction costs. The elements of a standardized option contract specifies whether it is a put or call, its style as to when the option can be exercised, the underlying security, the strike price, the expiration date, and the number of shares of the underlying security for each contract, which is almost always shares for equity options.
However, different countries may have different standards. Calls and puts are the 2 types of options. A call gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy a specific security for a set price, called the strike or exercise price.
A put gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to sell a particular security for the strike price. If the price of the underlying security moves substantially before expiration dates, then new options are created with strike prices closer to the new market price of the underlying security. The older contracts are then exercised, closed out, or left to expire. There are 3 styles of options that differ as to when the option can be exercised.
American-style options allow the holder to exercise the option at any time before expiration, whereas European-style options allow the holder to exercise only for a short time before the expiration date. The option style is not related to geography — most options traded in Europe are American-style options. All equity options are American-style options, but most foreign currency options and CBOE stock index options are European-style options. Note that, although European-style options can only be exercised during a brief time right before expiration, the options can be sold before then.
Most options that require a cash settlement instead of the delivery of securities are European-style options, because it makes no sense to exercise an option for cash when it can simply be sold for cash. The capped-style option can only be exercised for a specific time before expiration, unless the underlying security reaches the cap price, in which case, the capped-style option is exercised automatically.
This cap limits the profit potential of the option for the holder and the risk for the option writer. A standardized option contract is always for shares of the underlying security, unless it is adjusted for a stock split, or some other event that would affect the relationship of the option to the underlying security.
Options always expire on the Saturday following the 3 rd Friday of the expiration month, although they must be exercised by the Friday before expiration since that is the last trading day.
The Saturday following expiration is used so that brokers can confirm customer option positions and related paperwork incurred by expiration and exercise. There are at least 2 near-term options which expire in the nearest 2 months, and there are 2 long-term options. When the current month's options expire, then more are created that expire in the month after the next. The expiration dates of long-term options are based on specific sequences. The exact months of expiration are based on 3 different sequential cycles: For larger companies and major indexes for which there is a significant market demand, there are also LEAPS L ong-Term E quity A ntici P ation S ecurities , which are special options that initially have expiration dates several years into the future, and always expire in January.
Microsoft is on the January cycle, so before the 3 rd Saturday in November, , the 2 near-term options are for November and December, the 2 far-term options are for January and April, and the 2 LEAPS expire in January and On the Monday following option expiration in November, the 2 near-term options will be for December and January and the 2 far-term options will be for April and July.
Some option contracts differ slightly from most others. An option class consists of all contracts that have the same type call or put , style American or European , and underlying security. Thus, all Microsoft calls compose an option class, while all Microsoft puts compose another. An option series is composed of the set of all options of the same option class that also have the same strike price and expiration date.
When an investor buys an option contract, that contract is based on what is known about the contract terms at the time; however, events can occur that would change the basic relationship between the option contract and the right that it confers. For instance, if the company declares a 2-for-1 stock split, then each share of stock will be doubled, but the stock price will be half of what it was prior to the split.
Now, consider 2 option holders. Now consider the writers of these 2 options. To prevent these scenarios, adjustments are made to the option contracts sometimes called adjusted options , when the relationship to the underlying security is significantly altered.
These alterations can include stock splits, reverse stock splits, stock dividends or distributions, rights offerings , a reorganization or recapitalization of the company, or a reclassification of the underlying security. It can also occur if the issuer of the underlying security is acquired or merges, or is dissolved or liquidated. There are standard ways to adjusting the contracts in common events, such as stock splits, but, when the event is peculiar, and creates an uncertainty as to how the adjustment should be made, an adjustment panel will decide on the contract adjustments.
All contract adjustments are published by the Options Clearing Corporation. The adjustments are listed in reverse chronological order, but the page includes a search box for looking for particular options.
The effective date is the ex-date established by the primary market in the underlying security. Generally, option contracts are adjusted to maintain the same basic relationship between the option and the underlying security. The necessary adjustments in most of these cases can be found by the following equation:. Note that the share number and price are inversely related. If the number of shares is adjusted upward, then the price of each share must be adjusted downward, and vice versa.
In a 2-for-1 stock split, contracts are usually adjusted by doubling the number of option contracts, and halving their price. Using the equation above to verify: In cases where the divisor is greater than 1, then each contract is adjusted by altering the number of shares for each contract and their price, to accommodate anyone holding just 1 contract. Other kinds of adjustments are more rare, and all of these can be found at the Options Clearing Corporation.
The search engine provided allows searches for year, month, keywords, or memo number. Options were originally traded over the counter OTC , and still are. The advantages of the OTC market over the exchanges is that the option contracts can be tailored: However, OTC options have greater transaction costs and less liquidity.
Organized exchanges offer standardized contracts that are cheaper and easier to sell. Most options sold in Europe are traded through electronic exchanges. Other exchanges for options in the United States include: Options are traded just like stocks; however, the option holder, unlike the holder of the underlying stock, has no voting rights in the corporation, and is not entitled to dividends. Brokerage commissions must also be paid to buy, sell, or exercise options, and generally these commissions are a little higher than for stocks.
Prices are usually quoted as a minimum amount plus per contract, but phone orders cost more, and broker-assisted trades are the most expensive. Many brokerages also offer a sliding commission scale for active traders, yielding lower commissions for certain minimum number of trades.
The price of the option is known as the premium. When the option is first sold, the option buyer pays the premium to the option writer. Thereafter, it trades in the secondary market.
Option premiums can be divided into 2 components: All options have time value sometimes called extrinsic value because an option, as long as it exists, gives the holder the right to buy or sell the underlying security for the strike price.
The greater the time until expiration, the greater the chance that the option can become profitable, and thus, the greater the time value. As the remaining time for the option declines, so does its time value, until at expiration it becomes completely worthless, and ceases to exist. Standardized option contracts expire the 3 rd Saturday of the month of expiration; however, the last trading day is the Friday before expiration.
If the security is currently trading above the exercise price of a call, or if the security is currently trading below the strike price of a put, then the option also has intrinsic value , which, in the case of a call, is the difference between the current price of the security and the strike price. If this difference is zero or negative, then the call has no intrinsic value, but only time value.
The intrinsic value of a put is the difference between the strike price of the put and the current price of the security. When an option has intrinsic value, it is said to be in the money , if the strike price of the option and the price of the underlying security are equal, then the option is said to be at the money , and if the intrinsic value is negative, then the option is said to be out of the money.
A call is created when an investor accepts the legal obligation for a specified time to sell a particular security for a particular strike price. The call writer is said to have a short position. If the call writer already owns the security on which the call is written, then the call is a covered call ; otherwise, it is a uncovered call or a naked call , in which case, if the option is exercised, the call writer will have to buy the stock on the open market for whatever the current price is, which is the risk that a naked call writer bears.
A call writer has the duty to deliver the security for the strike price when the call is exercised. Sometimes, an option seller is considered an option writer—and in many contexts, these 2 words are used as synonyms—but this is not necessarily so, or even likely. Anyone who already owns an option has a long position in it and would most likely close his position by selling it rather than exercising it, because options always have some time value before expiration, so selling an option is usually more profitable than exercising it.
But the option holder has no legal obligation, since he only bought the contract, not write it. However, an option writer sells an option that she created by agreeing to the legal obligation imposed by the contract that she sold for the premium. She is said to have a short position because, to close out her obligation before expiration, she would have to buy back a contract with the same terms that she wrote.
To have a short position in options is similar to having a short position in stocks, except that the option writer creates the option to sell, whereas the short seller of stock must first borrow the stock to sell it, which must eventually be bought back to close out the position.
The option writer must also buy back the contract to close out her position before expiration, which she would do if she thought that the option will move more into the money before expiration, but she could also just let the option expire if she thought that the option will not be in the money at expiration, thereby saving the commission of buying the option back, or she could fulfill her obligation when assigned an exercise, because, at expiration, there is no time value left to the option, so it might be cheaper than buying back the option earlier.